Wednesday, August 7, 2013

WHY INDIAN DEFENSE MINISTER IS OUT TO PROTECT PAKISTAN ARMY FROM ITS HENIOUS ACT OF KILLING 5 INDIAN SOLDIERS?


THE ANSWER IS NOBEL PEACE PRIZE FOR PRIME MINSTER MANMOHAN SINGH
MY HYPOTHESIS: My two bit as to why the Indian Defense Min tried to put Pakistan off the hook for its dastardly act in killing of 5 soldiers: 1. USA is in the process of withdrawal of forces and is facing serious heat on its flank, it has told India not to do anything to heat matters in LoC that will make Pakistan direct more Army personnel from its Afghan border to Indian border - making Haqqanis et al go in and out more easily to blow ofF NATO and coalition troops. 2. As a quid pro quo, it has offered Indian Govt a way out - a Nobel Peace prize for PM Manmohan Singh and Nawaz Sharif for a joint declaration and treaty (along the lines of the 1994 Prize - Arafat, Perez and Rabin). For a beleaguered UPA government, this would have been an imp coup de etat. However Pakistan Army is in no mood for Nawaz to be given a Nobel Prize, much less, sign a treaty with India. It acted on its own to derail the peace talk. Hence Indian government is trying to get Pakistan off the hook. The question is - is this in India's self interest?

Friday, April 5, 2013

KALI (KILO AMPERE LINEAR INJECTOR) - TESTED IN SIACHEN ?

Uncorfirmed report but makes for a compelling reading. KALI WEAPON: He came to Delhi and popped up the idea to use avalanche to kill enemies. Initially he was snubbed but his elaborate and detailed plan presentation convinced the Director to take it up with PM and NSA. PM though have little interests in technical details but wanted to know any political and diplomatic repercussions. It was a cease-fire scenario all along LoC and AGPL for many reasons and he didn't want to India being blamed for violation. Also he was not sure about such a ambitious plan using technology and that too from DRDO but he gave that to NSA to ponder and reply. Director RAW and NSA were old time pals and NSA was taken into confidence by RAW much before that meeting at RCR. Director RAW also convinced the NSA to persuade PM for this op being highly classified and not to be shared with anyone except whom RAW thinks appropriate. PM gave in after NSA's assurance even though he couldn't find any scope of political mileage out of it. But NSA was smart enough to show the PM much larger picture. Permission granted and a task team was constituted. NSA was made to head the team with direct reporting to PM. Director RAW handpicked people from RAW, DRDO (LASTEC and SASE), Army and Airforce for the operation. Op was christened "White Wash". He even managed to pass it through always cunning finance controllers without any suspicion. KALI also known as an avatar of Hindu Goddess Durga. KALI Ma (Mother KALI) is ruthless destroyer of the enemies. She is shown as four handed lady wearing garlands made of heads of enemies she has killed. One right hand holds a sword and other right hand holds a trident. Upper left hand holds a amputated and bleeding head of one enemy and lower left hand holds a bowl where blood from enemy head is collected. So the name suggests actual intentions and idea of DRDO behind this. 6 NLI BN HQ was marked as "test" area and a team of RAW and SASE visited "S" post of Indian Army at 21,000 feet in Siachen glacier from where battalion HQ of 6 NLI was visible. SASE team mapped the area and identified possible trigger points to bury the "test" area under tons of snow. Now the task force was facing a huge challenge of taking up the heavy laser gun, the gen set and other support equipments up there at 21,000 feet. Also heavy noise and vibrations of the equipment could also trigger an avalanche on our own troops. So, it was decided to use air platform for KALI. Two IL- 76s were deputed to ARC (Aviation Research Centre) from Indian Air force. ARC is aviation arm of RAW. Immediately those were flown by ARC pilots to Charbatia Airbase near Cuttack in Odisha. These IL-76s were refitted with KALI-50000W on board. It is much more powerful version than what RAW officer saw at Jawahar tunnel. Techically it is a pulsed accelerator of ~30 MeV electron energy, 50-100 ns pulse time, 90kA Current and 200 GW Power level. After refitting these IL76s were flown to Sarsawa AF station and parked. No one was allowed to go near those and were guarded by fierce looking Garud commandos of IAF. H hour or the time of action was decided as 1200 hrs. It was suppose to take 2 hours to soften up the trigger points and then start the avalanche around 2 PM. Most avalanches occur around late noons, so was that planned timing. An observation party was though deployed at Indian Army's "S" post to monitor, feed and give directions if any to master control room aboard one of the IL 76s. Most of the DRDO scientists working with KALI and other communication engineering projects were South Indians and had never seen altitudes over 1000 feet. They were most uncomfortable when some of them were told to hold at 21,000 feet for 1 month. SASE guys were not so uncomfortable as they always are in snow and studying snow but still 21,000 feet is an altitude which can freeze the shit in you. But they were lucky to find some brave and lunatics to accept that challenge. They were given high altitude training and proper acclimatization along with new inducting army units for deployments in north and central glaciers. Army instructors and jawans had seen many civilians at Siachen base camp earlier but never ever they saw some civilians training as hard as them. The only problem with air platform was the very long shot for "laser fire" and thus problems in polarization (keeping laser intensity focused at target). And this operation required high precision "shooting". IL 76's were supposed to fly at 30000 feet and well away from Siachen. So BARC (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre), Mumbai was roped in for help regarding polarization. After studying the requirements it was suggested to shift the H-hour either in early morning or late evening to avoid any refraction. Though both the times were highly unusual for natural occurrence of avalanches but it was decided to start "firing" around 4 in the morning, a day before Mr Zardari would be visiting Delhi. On the d-day IL-76 flew from Sarsawa and soon positioned themselves at the required altitude and pre designated coordinates. 1 AWACS and 1 IL-78 mid air refuler took off from Agra and were given co-ordinates and call signs to help 2 classified flying objects over Uttrakhand skies. RAW ops are always strictly need to know basis. AWACS staff was little puzzled seeing few plain cloth men on board overseeing them but nobody questioned. AWACS were also tasked to vector in 6 Mirages from Gwalior and 4 SU 30s from Lohegaon (Pune) in support of those 2 classified flying objects. Mirages and SU 30s were airborne since 2 in the morning and taking turns to scan the area around 2 unknown birds. At 4 in the morning the shooting started and as expected early morning rare environment helped a lot in precision. SASE team had earmarked the points after detailed analysis of images at satellite data reception centre and 3-D Terrain Visualization Center. DRDO's team KALI was shooting at right places with laser gun being fed with precise coordinates. By 5:40 AM massive snow started hurtling towards plains where 6 NLI BN HQ was situated. It was a dry snow avalanche and very soon massive slabs of snow attained speed of around 300km/hour. Outposts of 6 NLI troops and other Pakistani troops must have seen the mass of snow coming down and might have tried to alert the HQ. But that massive avalanche not only had snapped the communication lines but also blasted away some outposts. And 300km/hr is a speed coupled with thousand tones of cruising mass which can beat any wit or training. Even Indian observation party at "S" post was horrified to see such large avalanche. Within 10-15 minutes everything was covered with 80-100 feet of snow. Indian soldiers looking that were horrified too and it was the real "tandav" of KALI who as per Hindu mythology has defeated "Shiva" the greatest and official destroyer of the Universe. 2 brand new MI 17V5s helicopters flew from Thoise airbase to "A" post at 8 AM. 6 Cheetah Helicopters were also ready at Siachen Base camp 1 hour before 2 Mi-17s i.e at 7 AM . 6 Cheetahs flew after gap of 5 minutes with each other and destination was "S" post. Task was to pick the group of "civilians" and their equipments who were dropped a month ago on postal-stamp size helipad of post "S". Cheetahs were suppose to bring those civilians to post "A" at 16,000 feet from where they'll board Mi17s to climb down to Thoise. KALI carrying IL76s were back at their base Charbatia and so were their escorts. Brigade Commander 323 Pakistani brigade was jolted out of his sleep by his staff with the news. He was immediately out for rescue and relief work after informing Maj. Gen. Muzammil Hussain, Commander FCNA who in turn informed Lt Gen Khalid Nawaz Khan, GoC, X corps. Soon Pakistani news channels started reporting the tragedy which has struck PA. The first rescue team led by Brigade Commander himself couldn't believe what they saw. There was just snow all around at the same place where 6 NLI was having its BN HQ few hours back. There was no communication signal either. FCNA Signal unit detachment, which was summoned to take part in relief ops were trying to get in touch with border outposts of the unit. Some of them perished in the avalanche and most of them were "out" of signal due to large scale destruction of communication lines. Brigade intelligence officer gave record of last evening roll call details as mentioned in sit-rep (situational report) of the BN HQ as sent by 2 in Command Maj Zaka UL Haq. There were 124 army personnel's including BN commander Lt Col Tanvir Ul Hassan, Cap (Doc) Haleem Ullah and Major Zaka. There were 11 civilians also including tailor, barber, porters etc. In total 135 men were under snow. Initial estimate showed a layer of 80 ft snow which is beyond reach of any sniffer dog or digging machines. It was a crippling blow to Pakistan's tactical position in Siachen. With Pakistan Army occupying only downhill features in Siachen and Soltoro ranges India can take out all those positions without firing a bullet and no collateral damage. IL 76 mounted KALI avatar is very expansive as of now and not viable against small border outposts. DRDO is confident of developing a handheld or compact version soon for usage of KALI against such targets. KALI is also very useful and effective in "frying" up electronic circuits from considerable distance and with no human-eye visible rays. That can have wide range of application form missile defense system to satellite killer or snapping out communication of a moving armored column or making an AWACS a sitting duck.

Friday, June 15, 2012

TRIBUTE TO SHRI MALOY KRISHNA DHAR

Mr Maloy Krishna Dhar, spy extraordinaire, author is no more with us. Many of the articles I have written were from his books and through e-mail correspondences shared with him. We were to meet in Kolkata, that never happened. This is one the articles I wrote - with inputs from his book: WHEN DIRE STRAITS SANG - BROTHERS IN ARMS - AM SURE THEY DID NOT HAVE THIS "ARMS" IN MIND. Former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto had alleged that elements of the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) "continue the alliance with both the Taliban and al Qaeda to this very day" on the premise that Pakistan’s security requires "strategic depth" in the shape of a friendly or pliant Afghanistan. In an interview to Yale Global, Bhutto said that the ISI was continuing to adhere to the old arrangement, "even if it means supporting fanatics." Daily Times, August 29, 2007 Benazir Bhutto had also said the Pakistani army decided to overthrow her in 1996 after she announced plans to crack down on terrorism. She had said she first heard the name of Osama bin Laden in 1989, when he sent USD 10 million to the ISI to help it overthrow her first government. ISI man Khalid Khawaja says that Osama financed the move against Bhutto. This money, Khawaja said, then was handed to Nawaz, the Chief Minister of Punjab. Nawaz Sharif met Osama and said “I love Jihad”. Given that ISI is a organ of Pakistan Army, it is important to understand that this relationship (nexus with Al Qaeda and various terrorist groups including Taliban) existed from the very beginning and continues till this day. So much so I am going to state this – there is no difference between Pakistan Army, ISI, Taliban, Al Qaeda and terrorist groups it supports specially Lashkar e Taiba (LeT), Jasih e Mohammad (JeM), Lashkar e Jhangvi (LeJ) and Harkat Ul Jihadi Islami (HUJI & HUJI – B). The overt arms are Pakistan Army and ISI and covert arms are the rest including elements of ISI. I WILL KEEP ON REPEATING THIS: PAKISTAN ARMY HAS EMBEDDED ITS SOLDIERS, EX-SOLDIERS, DESERTERS INTO THE RANKS OF TALIBAN, LeT AND OTHER TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS FOR PLAUSIBLE DENIABILITY OF STATE ROLE. MR. ZARDARI - STATELESS ACTORS IS NOT EVEN AN EXCUSE THAT WILL BEFUDDLE US ANY MORE. ISI IS AN ARM OF PAKISTAN ARMY AND THEY LAUNCH AND TRAIN THESE TERRORISTS IN THE LAND CALLED PAKISTAN. HENCE, THEY ARE STATE ACTIONS AND ACTORS. EITHER YOU ARREST THESE "STATELESS" ACTORS, OR STATE THAT YOU HAVE LOST GOVERNANCE OVER THEM. IN THAT CASE INDIA HAS THE RIGHT TO ARREST / KILL THESE STATELESS ACTORS AND OBLITERATE THEIR TRAINING AND BREEDING GROUND. New York Times: The intelligence service of Pakistan, a crucial American ally in the war on terrorism, has had an indirect but longstanding relationship with Al Qaeda, turning a blind eye for years to the growing ties between Osama bin Laden and the Taliban, according to American officials. On Lashkar e Taiba : NEW YORKER reports the group’s bank accounts remain unmolested by the Pakistani government, which gives Lashkar quite a lot of running room; on the other, the group resents the accommodations reached between Pakistan’s government and the United States. There is little doubt that the Army and I.S.I. continue to use Jamat’s legitimate front as a vehicle for prosecution of a long-running “double game” with the United States, in which Pakistan pledges fealty to American counterterrorism goals while at the same time facilitating guerrilla violence against India. A little history to see how they (ISI - Al Qaeda - Terror groups) worked in tandem. We will take two countries here – PHILIPPINES and BOSNIA. RAMZI YOUSEF KHALID SHEIKH MD. But before that – a tale of two individuals – Ramzi Yousef and Khalid Sheikh Mohammad (both related to each other). Both are Pakistani citizen though Khalid was born in Kuwait to Pakistani Balochi parents, his first passport was from Pakistan. After 9/11 people tried to pass Khalid Sheikh as a Kuwaiti citizen. I have deliberately kept Omar Saeed Sheikh out of this - I am yet to make up my mind about him. That he is a coveted ISI asset is without doubt. But is he also a British intelligence asset? Khalid & Ramzi were nurtured, sheltered and trained by ISI in its Peshawar camp and received training in Khowst camp. Khalid, a brilliant student, became deeply involved with ISI & Al Qaeda. In 1993 Khalid and Ramzi planned the New York city World Trade Centre bombing which was successfully carried out by Ramzi in Feb 26th, 1993. After the bombing, he came back to Pakistan and met Khalid Sheikh and stayed in ISI safe houses. While in Pakistan, both planned to assassinate Benazir Bhutto in collaboration with some ISI operatives. ISI masterminded the assassination attempt – which did not take place (Note – the constant Al Qaeda ISI hand in the assassination attempt on Benazir. READ THIS QUIXOTIC BLOG ON BENAZIR AND ASSASINATION) After the failed attempt, Ramzi moved to Phillipines. By this time Ramzi became a coveted ISI asset. Nur Misauri, a professor of University of Philippines formed Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF). After suffering reversals at the hand of Philippines Army, Nur fled to PAKISTAN. Nur was financially supported by the ISI and stayed in guest houses in Peshawar and Karachi. He helped MNLF recruit for Afghan Jihad. While Nur wanted autonomy, Salamat Hashmi wanted independence from Philippines and he too was actively supported by ISI – so much so that Salamat moved his organization (MILF) head quarters to LAHORE. However, the most prominent face of Moro revolt is Aby Sayyaf group (ASG). It was originated in PAKISTAN when 400 Moro youths were inducted to Pakistan’s ISI managed camp. MR ZARDARI : STATELESS ACTORS ???? At this time, 3 retired ISI officers were recruited by ISI and deputed to Mindanao under cover as religious teachers. Simultaneously, Osama bin Laden (OBL) stationed his brother-in-law Md. Jamal Khalifa in Philippines. Al Qaeda and ISI came to a tacit understanding – to transplant Afghan jihad in South East Asia and create a distinct Islamic hub, as against the increasing Christian influence. The other common thread binding them were students emanating from the madrassas of Karachi, Peshawar, Binori, Bannu & Quetta. Khalifa set the Philippine operation rolling by setting up several front offices, trading units and charities. He was in charge of Saudi charity – Islamic International Relief Organization. With this he set up the terror network in Philippines and funded Al Qaeda operations in Jordan, Indonesia and Malaysia. Committed Al Qaeda operatives – Zubair, Abu Oman and Sadiq Oden (Kenyan bombing fame) joined him. Later Pakistani trainers, former ISI operatives, trained MILF and Abu Sayyaf guerrillas, the Malayan Kampulan Mujahideen, Jemmah Islamiyah and Lashkar Jundullah volunteers. Linkages of ISI and Al Qaeda are very deep and stretches to the core positions of Islamic terrorism in the entire South East Asia. Here the ISI – Al Qaeda team carried out several terrorist activities: 1. Ramzi bombed a mall at Cebu city 2. Ramzi masterminded the bombing of Miss Universe paegent 3. Wali Khan Shah, the ISI trained operative, bombed Greenbelt theatre in Manila 4. Audacious plan to assassinate Pope John Paul II and Bill Clinton (then US President) in Manila by these core group was uncovered in time and a major disaster was averted. 5. Trial run for 9-11 was hatched in Manila by ISI – Al Qaeda operatives. It was codenamed Operation Oplan Bojinka OPLAN BOJINKA: This was conceived by Osama bin Laden, Khalifa, Ramzi,Khalid Sheikh and a faction of ISI. The grand plan was to sabotage 11 US flights over Pacific and they recruited Abu Sayyaf jehadists to carry out the plan. An ISI trained Pakistani – Tareq Kaved Rana – resident of Paranque, Philippines, played an important role. He housed the conspirators at his place which he used to fabricate bombs. Jamal, Ramzi & Khalid Sheikh guided the Manila cell of Al Qaeda. Another Pakistani terrorist, Wali Khan Shah (Greenway belt bomber) was entrusted by ISI to open terrorist cells in Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and Thailand. Another Pakistani born in Kuwait, Abdul Hakim Ali was trained by ISI in bomb making in Pehsawar. A product of Binori mosque and aligned to Harkat ul Ansar and trained by ISI – he joined the Philippines Al Qaeda cell. MR ZARDARI : ISI AND "STATELESS ACTORS" !! On December 11, Ramzi boarded Philippines Airline 434 on a Manila – Cebu – Tokyo route. He assembled a bomb and planted it under his seat and deplaned at Cebu. The bomb exploded on the 2nd leg and killed one passenger – the plane had to make emergency landing at Okinawa, Japan. The dry run for Oplan Bojinka was successful. However, the full plan could not be carried out, as the apartment that the conspirators were living in, mysteriously caught fire. They abandoned the plans after “incriminating evidence” was collected by federal agencies in Philippines. Ramzi promptly fled to Pakistan where he was housed by ISI in their safe houses. Filipino intelligence reported that Wali Khan Shah had visited Pakistan embassy in Manila twice to meet the ISI station in charge. On September 5th 1996, Ramzi, Murad and Shah were convicted of Oplan Bojinka. Under intense pressure Ramzi was arrested from a guest house in Islamabad. Under intense pressure, Khalid Sheikh was arrested after 9/11 – described as the mastermind of 9/11. PAUSE FOR A MOMENT : Part 1. WTC 1st attack was by Ramzi who was ISI asset. Part 2. Oplan Bojinka the dry run to 9/11 was conceived by Ramzi, Khalid, Osama and "a section of" ISI. Part 3.In 9/11 the only mastermind is Khalid Sheikh – no mention of ISI (ISI paid US lobbyists to have their name erased from the final 9/11 commission report) PHILIPPINES TODAY : So you thought this is all past. News flashing now - "Wednesday, 03 Dec 2008, COTABATO: Authorities in the southern Philippines have arrested a Pakistani with alleged links to a Southeast Asian extremist group for making bombs, it was announced Wednesday. Muhammand Alpariz was arrested at his apartment in Shariff Kabunsuan town on the island of Mindanao by joint police and military operatives on Tuesday, local Army spokesman Lieutenant Colonel Julieto Ando said. Found in his possession were 'two 60 millimetre mortar shells rigged to improvised explosives devices,' and two howitzer shells ready to be attached to similar bombs, said regional police head Chief Superintendent Pedro Tango. THE GLOBAL TERROR ARRANGEMENTS AND CONNECTIONS CONTINUE AND BEHIND IT ALL ONLY ONE NAME : ISI MR ZARDARI : WE KNOW HOW THESE "STATELESS" ACTORS HAVE BEEN FACILITATED BY ISI OVER THE YEARS. AND ISI IS A STATE INSTRUMENT. Coming to the plot to assassinate Bill Clinton – why would ISI want to do it? Let us go over to BOSNIA. When the Serbs attacked and laid siege on the Bosnian Muslims there was a UN embargo in weapons transfers into the war zone. Pakistan flouted the UN ban by transferring weapons to the Bosnian Muslims. Pakistan amry planes were used for this purpose. ISI Lt Gen Javed Nasir claimed that despite the UN ban, he successfully airlifted sophisticated anti-tank guided missiles and this forced the Serbs to life the siege, much to the annoyance of the US government. Not only arms and ammunition, Javed Nasir facilitated the movement of jihadists from Paksitan – Afghan theatre into Bosnia, some of whom are today settled in Bosnia after marrying locally. LOOK AT THIS IMAGE OF JAVED NASIR (RETD. ISI HEAD)- DOES HE LOOK ANY DIFFERENT FROM YOUR TALIBAN? US President Bill Clinton threatened to Pakistan Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif that Pakistan will be declared a TERRORIST STATE if Sharif did not remove Javed Nisar from top post of ISI. Which Sharif did and averted his nation from being called a Terrorist State. Recall a similar sacking of Mahmood Ahmed (AGAIN - ISI HEAD) who was implicated by Washington (FBI specifically) for passing on $100,000 to the 9/11 hijackers – who incidentally were trained by ISI. What Pakistan does – it does the deed deemed essential for military objectives and if the heat is great – they sacrifice the ISI head – temporarily. They use him some time later for the global jihad. ON MUMBAI ATTACKS - 3 POINTS: 1. The external section of ISI which reported to DG – ISI routinely executed plans of Army General A Kiyani and trained a few dozen Lashkar e Taiba (LeT) militants near Mangla Dam (close to Islamabad). And guess what : PAKISTAN'S SSG COMMANDO UNIT IS BASED THERE. These Mumbai attackers were part of this group. 2. n a major reshuffle of ISI a couple of months back the Director of External wing was changed placing the "game" in the hands of a low level ISI forward section head (a major) and the LeT's commander in chief - ZAKIUR RAHMAN. Zakiur was personally in Karachi to oversee the operation. Zaikur and ISI’s forward section in Karachi approved of the plan under which more than 10 men took Mumbai hostage for nearly 3 days and successfully established a reign of terror. 3. The PNS Iqbal – a naval commando unit in Karachi – was the main outlet of militants to be given training and through deserted points they were launched into the Arabian sea and on into the Indian region of Gujarat. MR ZARDARI: STATELESS ACTORS & ACTIONS? WHY HAS NO ONE YET COMMENTED ON THE ROLE OF ISI FORWARD SECTION HEAD AND ITS CONNECTION WITH ZAKIUR RAHMAN - SPL. THE COMPLICITY OF ISI's KARACHI FORWARD SECTION HEAD? ISI’s global successes in penetrating several countries have emboldened it to chew more than it can swallow. And if you want to know why DANIEL PEARL was killed - it was because he unearthed a direct link of nuclear commerce and knowledge between ISI and Al Qaeda. Muslims use CHARITY organizations as a front to spread terror and in this case too there was one - UMAAH TAMEER E NAU - read about it here and go to the links for a detailed analysis for complicity of ISI. Read this excellent article: PAKISTAN'S FORGOTTEN AL-QAEDA NUCLEAR LINK. I will not waste any more write up on ISI – but I want to make two quick points. ISI was deeply involved in the Bali Bombings as well as in Somalia (Black Hawk down episode). ISI was greatly impacted by Somalia adventures. USA moved out of Somalia as the body bags started climbing which was interpreted by ISI as – USA public opinion matters a lot to USA and it is averse to “body bags”. It completely miscalculated the American 9/11 response. Did it also miscalculate the Indian response (yet to be) to the Mumbai blasts? HAMID GUL (Retd ISI HEAD) - the GODFATHER OF TALIBAN put it most aptly when he said : Al Qaeda should be considered as a global superpower. STATELESS ACTORS - MY FOOT !!

Sunday, September 25, 2011

PAKISTAN'S NUCLEAR SECRETS - TUMBLING OUT AS USA MOUNTS PRESSURE ON ISI TO DISMANTLE HAQQANI

Dr A Q Khan’s 13-Page Confession

I was in Belgium in December 1971 and had just submitted by Ph.D. thesis when I saw the most painful and humiliating scenes of the surrender of the Pakistan Army in Dacca. To see our officers and jawans with crosses on their backs and their heads shaven being herded like cattle by Indian soldiers being kicked and hit with sticks was such a traumatic scene that I would never forget it my whole life long. In May 1974 I was working as a Senior Scientist at FDO in Amsterdam and had specialized in uranium enrichment technology, the most advanced and the most complicated technology that the Dutch, the Germans and the British had perfected after spending billions of dollars over a 20 year period. Even today it is the best technology for enriching uranium. On 18th May, 1974 the Indians exploded their first nuclear weapon.

Appreciating the immediate dangers posed to Pakistan’s security and very existence, I offered my services to the Prime Minister, Mr. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. On 20th December 1974 I paid a short visit and explained the whole process to the Prime Minister and told him that I could give Pakistan nuclear capability. After explaining the process to Munir Ahmed Khan, Chairman PAEC, we went back to Holland. On 21st December 1975 we again came on holiday. I went to see the progress of the work done in one year, which turned out to be almost nil. I explained this to the Prime Minister, who asked me to stay back and send my resignation to FDO. It was a tough decision for me and my family but we decided to stay so I could serve my beloved Pakistan. I was appointed Advisor to PAEC in June 1976. For six months I had worked without being paid and under miserable and disgusting conditions. I was later paid Rs. 3,000 per month. Working under PAEC proved to be impossible, hence the Prime Minister detached the Project from PAEC and made it independent under a Board of Coordination with Mr. A.G.M. Kazi (Chairman), Mr. Agha Shahi (Secretary General Foreign Affairs) and Mr. Ghulam Ishaq Khan (Secretary General Defence ) as members. We were to work directly under the Prime Minister. One should not forget that I had brought with me technology, experience and personal notes worth billions of dollars. Without my knowledge and experience, Pakistan could never - repeat never - have become a nuclear power. It was only because of my initiative, knowledge and achievements that our nation can walk straight and tall today! How I organized the work, set up the facilities and organized a most efficient network of companies to import materials and equipment is part of our history. I personally supervised each and every aspect of the Project and prepared the drawings and specifications to give to the suppliers. I trained hundreds of scientists and engineers who were initially totally ignorant of this high technology. The speed of the work and our achievements surprised our worst enemies and adversaries and the West stood helplessly by to see a Third World nation, unable even to produce bicycle chains or sewing needles, mastering the most advanced nuclear technology in the shortest possible span of time. Our mastery of this most advanced and invaluable technology enabled us to sign a historic contract for a giant plant in China. Because of my assistance to the Chinese, they in turn helped Munir Ahmed Khan in various projects that had been stagnating for years (i.e. UF6, Reprocessing, Conversion, Production Reactor etc.). By 1984 we had conducted successful cold tests and had manufactured all components for 30 nuclear devices. Upon my personal request, the Chinese Minister for Nuclear Technology had gifted us 50kg of weapon-grade enriched uranium, enough for 2 weapons. This gift clearly illustrates the importance the Chinese attached to the enrichment technology they received from me. I had asked for this to neutralize Indian nuclear blackmail and the imminent security threat to our country. Work was progressing very fast and I worked 14 to 16 hours a day, 7 days a week to get the job done against all odds, against all embargoes and despite the non-availability of trained manpower or expertise. In August 1988 President Gen. Zia-ul Haq died in a tragic air crash. Elections were held and Benazir Bhutto became the Prime Minister. Gen. Imtiaz, former M.S. to Mr. Bhutto, became Advisor on Defence to the Prime Minister and took over the supervision of the nuclear programme. In 1985 the revolution in Iran took place and there were many in Pakistan who sympathized with the revolution and change of dress code. Kahuta had a large number of Shias working there. One senior officer, Hanif Khalil, was even reported to have contacted the Iranian Ambassador, Mr. Mousavi, but, apprehensive of overzealousness and leakage to favour Iran, I warned him to be more cautious and carefull. In 1989 or 1990 COAS, Gen. Aslam Beg, promised to give the Iranians a few weapons and technology in lieu of 10 years of our defence budget. The Iranian Army Chief, Shamkani, flew to Islamabad in his own plane to pick up the weapons and papers. Admiral Sirohey as Chairman JCSC had a hard time trying to get out of this commitment, in which he succeeded. Later there was a lot of pressure by the COAS on Gen. Imtiaz and P.M. Benazir Bhutto to honour his commitment. Under pressure, Gen. Imtiaz asked Dr. Hashmi (I was out of station) to give some centrifuge parts and drawings etc. to the Iranians. He (Hashmi) asked him to wait until my return. When I got back, Gen. Imtiaz advised me to get components of two old (P-1) discarded machines and pack them into boxes together with 2 sets of drawings prepared by the late Mr. Khokhar. These drawings on their own were not sufficiently detailed to enable mastery of this difficult technology. The components and drawings were handed over to the late Dr. M.Z. Niazi for further disposal. As you know, Dr. Niazi was a confidante of Benazir Bhutto and Gen. Imtiaz. It was some time in 1994 or 1995 that Dr. Niazi requested me to see a few Iranian scientists passing through Karachi from China on their way to Dubai and then on to Teheran. I met them in our guesthouse in Karachi for about half an hour. I did not know any of them and they didn’t give any names. They said that they could not make any progress with their programme and asked whether it would be possible for me to visit them or to send a team for a few weeks. I flatly told them that it was not possible to have that kind of contact. They then asked a few simple questions and I advised them to study the available scientific literature, which contained all the information they were asking for. They seemed to be ignorant of the basic knowledge available in publications. During Gen. Zia’s rule, Benazir, her family, Gen. Imtiaz and Dr. Niazi were financially supported by Col. Gaddafi. It was reliably reported that Col. Gaddafi had given $ 200 million to the late Mr. Z.A. Bhutto to launch our nuclear programme. This was confirmed by Mr. Khalid Hassan, Press Secretary to Mr. Bhutto, in the mischievous BBC film “Project 706 - The Islamic Bomb”. I believe that one set of the drawings and components given by me was given to the Iranians and the other to the Libyans. Dr. Z.K. Niazi used to travel between Dubai, Tripoli and London and in Dubai he became friendly with Farooq of Sri Lanka through a British common friend named Peter. He probably brought a Libyan in contact with Farooq and asked him to arrange a meeting during one of my trips to Turkey. Once when we went to Istanbul (I donot know the date) to have discussions with Dr. Heilingbrunner, Lerch and Ruegg, Farooq (Sri Lanka) told me that a friend of Dr. Niazi’s would like to see me in the nearby Sheraton Hotel. We were staying at Hotel Dilson, Taksim Square. I met the gentleman, a plump darkish person who introduced himself as Magid or Mageed. He said that they wanted to start some R & D programme in the enrichment field and had been given assurances of Pakistan Government assistance. I said they lacked the trained manpower and infra-structure. He said that they could still start learning and do some laboratory experiments. I gave him a brief idea of how complex and difficult the whole technology was. After about half an hour we left and he said he would contact Farooq (Sri Lanka) whenever necessary. He was not a technical person. We did not hear from them for years and then during one of our trips to Turkey to meet our Turkish and Swiss suppliers, Tahir (nephew of Farooq) said that his uncle had phoned to say that a gentleman from Libya was there to see us. I met this gentleman with Tahir. He was of medium stature, average weight and a bit bald. He introduced himself as an Engineer and the name I understood was Mahfooz (you mentioned it as Matooq). He said he was now planning to start the programme as nothing had been done so far and he wanted to start on a small laboratory scale. I told him the plant needed a lot of space and many workshops and manpower. He said that they could go underground, to which I replied that it was not possible for such a big plant with all the facilities to go underground. Since he was planning on a small scale, he thought they might set up a farm of camels or goats and put one or two small sheds in between to put up the laboratory and start training the people in various technologies (vacuum, welding process, computer etc.). I suggested they first send enough people abroad for degrees/training and then start the research programme. He seemed to like that idea. We met for about half an hour at the most. We did not meet again for a long time. After 4 or 5 years, while in Dubai, Tahir invited us to dinner in his flat and the whole Matooq family (9 or 10 people) was there too. He said that they were now starting the work and that he was in touch with foreign suppliers. These had agreed to supply components, equipment etc. through Dubai and other countries. I just listened, being sure in my mind that there was not a committed approach and that they would not be able to achieve much. What they needed was commitment and trained manpower, neither of which they had. I met this same gentleman at dinner at Tahir’s place once or twice more over a period of 4 to 5 years. On those occasions he never discussed any technical matters or asked any questions. I only heard him discuss payment problems to suppliers with Tahir. Tahir once mentioned that Matooq was always taking away quite a bit of money for his personal use. There was always a young man named Karim with him. The last time I met him was in Casablanca for half an hour at tea when we were going to Timbuktu. Tahir said he had asked to see him there as the suppliers were making his life difficult. Tahir asked him to send some money as quickly as possible as the suppliers were pressing him very hard and chasing him. Matooq neither gave me any detail of his work nor asked any questions. I was aware that Tahir was assisting him with the placing of orders according to the supplier’s quotations. It was business between user and supplier. The suppliers had all the drawings that we had originally given them as well as their own modified drawings and were, thus, in a position to supply the requested or suggested products, make their own suggestions and/or submit quotations. Even when we met the last time, I was sure that the Libyans were unable to run any machine properly, not to talk of enrichment. Since I never visited their country or saw any film of their facilities, I did not know anything about their programme. I had heard that they had not even erected a single shed to do some preliminary work. Western suppliers were supplying components etc. and one factory in Malaysia, owned by the son of the Malaysian Prime Minister, Ahmad Badawi, was producing milk/oil tankers, liquid petroleum tankers etc. A Swiss Engineer had put up some machines in this factory to manufacture some components. The components intercepted on the ship near Italy were reportedly manufactured there. Pakistan or KRL had nothing whatsoever to do with it. At one time Tahir asked if he could hire some retired/nearly retired engineers for his factory. Farooq (KRL) was quite unhappy at being demoted and was interested in a good job. Mr. Nasimuddin was nearing LPR and wanted to find a job abroad as his children were studying in the U.S.A. I asked them to send their C.V.s to Malaysia. Mr. Nasimuddin paid a visit there but did not like the place and preferred a government job in the Middle East. Farooq showed some interest, but then preferred to stay back as he was hoping that Mr. Azmat would retire and that he would again be promoted to the post of D.G. That was the end of their interest in Malaysia. If the Libyans have any papers/drawings bearing our name or signatures etc, they must have obtained them either from Farooq (Sri Lanka), Tahir or our old suppliers, as the two first-mentioned had them in Dubai for our use. I have heard that Tahir is being interrogated by the Malysian, American and British authorities and is telling all sorts of stories to save himself. He must be saying the things that the interrogators want to hear from him, even though they may be incorrect. I did not ask anybody in KRL to send any gas to Libya and it is impossible to get 2 tons of gas out of Kahuta without this discrepancy being found out or caught. Our material balance sheet is foolproof. If one believes in the disappearance of this quantity of gas, one could also accept the possibility of the disappearance of Kg 200 or 300 weapon-grade material, which is also impossible. The suggestion that I ever asked for a Libyan passport is both ludicrous and preposterous. I lived in Europe for 15 years and could have got nationality of Germany, Holland or Belgium, but I was proud to keep my Pakistani passport. H.H. Prince Mamdouh bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud, brother of King Fahd, offered us (Gen. Chowhan, Dr. Nazeer and me) Saudi passports during one of our visists to the Islamic Development Bank meetings in Jeddah, but I very politely refused. H.H. Gen. Shaikh Mohammad bin Zayed, Chief of the U.A.E. Armed Forces and Deputy Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi, offered me U.A.E. nationality many times together with a luxurious villa, which I also politely refused. I discarded all these lucrative and attractive offers and preferred to work and live in Pakistan.

Iran
The Iranians went on their own to buy, process or manufacture components and equipment. We did not hear from them for years. Some 10 odd years ago Tahir asked for some P-1 components from Farooq (KRL). I don’t remember the exact details. As you mentioned, some small components (200 sets) were collected from our old, discarded stock or a few may have been manufactured and sent by Farooq (KRL) to Tahir, who then probably passed them on to some Iranians. There were no casings, bases, feed systems, scoops etc. Without this system the machine is useless and hence the components were of little value in the overall project. Furthermore, the components were old, mostly rejected due to being out-of-tolerances. They could, at the most, be useful for assembling a few machines but it would not have been possible to make them run to the desired speed. You have to be extremely competent and expert to assemble, balance and run these machines to full speed (63,000 rpm). I allowed it as it was earlier sanctioned by Gen. Imtiaz and the Government and it would keep the Iranians happy and our friendship with them in tact. That the Iranians failed to achieve any progress in 15 years, shows the complexities and extreme technical expertise required to master this technology. It is most unfortunate that, having been betrayed by their own opposition nationals (Mujahideen Khalq Group) and having failed in their effort to achieve any progress, the Iranians have reportedly pointed their finger at us and are now putting us into trouble. They say that they have not given any names or sources from Pakistan. This was emphatically assured and conveyed to me through Izaz Jaffery by ex-Ambassador Agha Siraj Mousavi himself. The spirit behind giving some assistance to Iran or Libya was to maintain friendly relations between them and us. At no time did I seriously believe that they were capable of mastering this technology as they didn’t have the required infra-structure, the trained manpower or the technical know-how.


North Korea
After approval from the Prime Minister and the COAS, a contract was signed with the North Koreans for a Km 1500 surface-to-surface guided missile. A delegation led by me and including Gen. Mian Mushtaq, DGCD, Admiral Sohail Ahmed Khan, Col. Qazi, Dr. Mirza, Nasim Khan and others visited North Korea for about 5 days. Later their team came here and the deal was finalized with the participation of the then DGCD, Gen. Ziauddin, Dr. Samar Mubarakmand and Chairman Suparco, Mr. Sikander. The Korean team was officially allowed to stay at Kahuta once the products started coming. This was some time in 1993-4. They had to work in the shops and instruct our engineers and technicians in the making of the components. Most of their work was in the two machine shops that were also producing and assembling centrifuges and centrifuge sub-assemblies. They became interested in the technology and some engineers spent a lot of time with Khokhar in his shop where rotor tubes, bellows, etc. were being made and there was a test-bed of P-2. Khokhar was making the liquid fuel rocket engine and needed the Koreans the whole day on a daily basis. During the course of their stay it is quite possible that he explained some details of centrifuge machines to them. Some time in 1996, when the missile project was in full swing, some payments from the GHQ to the Koreans were pending. Somebody from GHQ advised Gen Kang, the Korean representative, to pay some money to Gen. Ziauddin to get the money released. Gen. Kang gave him a suitcase containing $ 0.5 million. Gen. Ziauddin informed Gen. Waheed, COAS, and they returned the money to Kang. Gen. J. Karamat, CGS, came to know of this and phoned me after a few days saying that I should arrange with Gen. Kang to pay this money to him for some secret army funds. He would then sanction the payment of their outstanding charges. He phoned me a few times to expedite the matter. I talked to Gen. Kang and he gave me the $ 0.5 million in cash, which I personally delivered to Gen. J. Karamat. In the meantime Gen. Karamat became COAS and said to me that he needed more money for the same secret funds and that I should talk to Gen. Kang. Gen. Kang came back to me after a few days and said that his boss was willing to give a further $ 2.5 million, provided we helped them with the enrichment technology. They already had a production reactor and were producing plutonium. They had also manufactured a few weapons as, according to Gen. Kang’s boss, they had received Kg 200 plutonium and weapon designs from the Russians in the mid-fifties after the Korean War. They had shown Dr. Mirza and me the perfect nuclear weapon, technologically more advanced than ours. They wanted this technology only for fuel for the power reactors as it cost only 1/10 of that of the diffusion process and required only low capital investment. They were not interested in weapon-grade production of material and did not ask any questions or for drawings for specially designed cascades for weapon-grade material. I informed Gen. J. Karamat; he agreed and gave me a go-ahead. I asked my people to prepare 20 outdated P-1 machines and gave them. Since they were working in the plant and were familiar with the P-2 machines, they asked for 4 of these too. I discussed the matter with the COAS and obtained his approval. After that I personally gave the remaining $ 2.5 million to Gen. Karamat in cash at the Army House to make up the whole amount. The senior engineers at Kahuta were responsible for the Korean’s movements and work. People at the plant were mixing with them every day and taking them around or discussing things with them. I was hardly there. I used to go to Kahuta for 3 or 4 hours to do administrative work and mostly spent the time in my office or with Brig. Behram who was making a launcher, which was our priority at the time. The Koreans took the machines in their own plane with which they were bringing missile parts for us. Security Staff was always present to check incoming and outgoing cargo. Even Dr. Mirza and Nasim Khan made some control panels and software packages and gave them. The Koreans had brought some UF6 gas for analysis, which we tested and found that it was not pure enough. They requested a few Kg of depleted gas for comparison purposes, which we gave them. Technically and monetarily it had no value. One could buy such a sample from abroad. One flowmeter was given to them as a sample. A flowmeter is an ordinary instrument in a UF6 plant. It is banned for Pakistan but available in the open market in Europe. They, in return, taught us how to make Krytrons (fast switches), which were banned items and are needed in nuclear weapons detonation. This was very valuable to us. After having been here for years, the COAS (Gen. Pervez Musharraf) desired that we should send the Koreans back immediately. They left within 3 days. After that we had no more contact with them. I left KRL on 31.3.2001 and that was that. As far as the destroying of any papers or gate passes is concerned, I only advised people not to keep any papers or records that could implicate Pakistan with transfer of technology or equipment to North Korea at any later stage. At that time there were various lobbies against Pakistan and I feared that these papers could, if falling into wrong hands, be used to implicate Pakistan. It was only meant as a precautionary measure. I have done nothing against the interests of Pakistan and whatever I did could not have resulted in proliferation of nuclear weapons. It was primarily meant to keep up our friendship with those countries that had been helping Pakistan from time to time. I would like to reiterate that I never - repeat never - ever put foot on Iranian or Libyan soil. In early 1989 Gen. Aslam Beg asked me if I could help the Iranians in enrichment technology so that they could also achieve nuclear capability. He was convinced that, if Iran had this capability, it would work as a shield between Pakistan on the one side and the U.S.A. and other Western countries on the other side and that these countries would then not be able to undertake any mischievous or adventurous action against Pakistan. I agreed in principle, but told him I could only do so with a go-ahead from the Government. When Gen. Imtiaz told me to do the needful, I did so as I knew he must have obtained clearance from the Prime Minister. So also was the case with Libya. Dr. Zafar Niazi told me that it had been cleared by the Prime Minister, upon which I took the necessary action.

Fox News
The A Q Khan Report by Pakistan’s ISI
After hearing press complaints and information coming out from various sources after agreements, first by Iran and then Libya, to abandon their programmes of weapons of mass destruction, the Government of Pakistan took a very serious note of the allegations made by various international newspapers and media and started an intensive, thorough and aggressive investigation against a number of scientists and engineers who had anything to do with the production, assembling and testing of centrifuge components and machines as well as those responsible for the import and export of equipment and materials. The Director General of Security and the Director General of Maintenance and General Services were also detained for thorough investigation.

The Principal Engineer of the Design Office, who had been abroad for 4 years, had just returned and was also detained. Similarly, the Director General Process Division who was responsible for keeping records of UF6 gas and the Director General Health Physics who kept the records of incoming natural gas and outgoing depleted gas, uranium metal etc. were also detained. The founding father of KRL, Dr. A.Q. Khan, was also interrogated 3 times for many hours by the DG ISI and the DG SPD. The investigation has yielded the following results:

1. When the organization was set up in mid 1976, a free hand was given to the Project Director to acquire each and everything through any means. There was a direct and imminent threat to Pakistan’s security and existence in the wake of the dismemberment of the country in 1971 and after the Indian nuclear test in 1974.

2. Gen. Ziaul Haq had openly proclaimed that to “beg, borrow or steal” was the policy of the day in the light of the imposition of stringent embargoes and restrictions on any nuclear-related materials and equipment to Pakistan.

3. Pakistan, being an under-developed country with no industrial infrastructure, had to buy each and every bit of material and piece of equipment surreptitiously from abroad in the open market and had to establish a network of cover companies within the country and outside to by-pass embargoes and import all the necessary items. Such companies were operating in Kuwait, Bahrain, the UAE, Singapore, the UK, Germany, Luxembourg, Switzerland, etc.

4. Since no industrial infra-structure was available within the country, production drawing of all the components of the centrifuge machines were sent to England, France, Germany, Switzerland, Holland etc. for the placing of orders for the thousands of components and equipment required in order to expedite the work, which was a race against time.

5. Dubai, having no customs formalities or restrictions and no financial impediments, was made the main operating centre. All the foreign suppliers (Dutch, British, French, Turkish, Belgian, Swiss, German etc.) were regularly coming to Dubai to discuss offers and orders. A company named Ben Belilah Enterprises BBE), owned by an Arab police officer, was introduced by Mr. A. Salam, a British national. BBE had a Sri Lankan Manager named Farooq. Salam and Farooq, both being Tamils, were good friends. Due to the frequent meetings between our experts and the foreign suppliers, sets of almost all the drawings were kept in Dubai in a flat that had been rented especially for this purpose so they wouldn’t have to be carried to and fro all the time.

6. Due to religious and idealogical affinity, Pakistanis had great affection for Iran. Former COAS, Gen. Aslam Beg was in favour of very close cooperation in the nuclear field in lieu of financial assistance promised to him towards Pakistan’s defence budget. Benazir Bhutto’s government came under a lot of pressure for cooperation and under this pressure and the decision/approval/directive of Gen. Imtiaz Ali, Adviser on Defence (including nuclear matters) to the Prime Minister, KRL gave some drawings and components to Iran for R & D work. The information given was by no means sufficient to enable Iran to establish even a small pilot plant, not to talk of a fully fledged centrifuge plant or produce nuclear weapons. The Iranians already had excellent contacts with European suppliers and they also started importing components and equipment through Dubai (Farooq). For some time there was close cooperation through Farooq. The Iranians wanted drawings etc. of valves, inverters, control panels, cascades etc. from Farooq and they gave him $ 5 million to help them in their efforts to acquire this information. Farooq gave some money to Dr. Niazi who had arranged the initial contact between him (Farooq) and the Iranians and some he transferred to his own accounts. Part of the money was put in an account in the fictitious name of Haider Zaman, which first Farooq and later on Tahir (Farooq’s nephew) and Dr. A.Q. Khan could operate. This account was opened personally by Farooq. Some of the money from this account was used by Tahir for payments etc. and some was donated for vaious social, educational and welfare projects undertaken by Dr. A.Q. Khan in Pakistan.

7. The Iranians needed some P-1 (early discarded model) components. They approached Tahir to request Farooq, an engineer in KRL, to send them these components. These were old components that were no longer being used by KRL and were not sufficient or adequate for the establishment of a small pilot plant or to produce nuclear weapons.

8. If it is true, but this is highly unlikely, that there were some traces of uranium in the Iranian facilities, there is just the remotest off chance that one or more KRL components inadvertently had traces of UF6 gas on them that had not been properly decontaminated before shipment.

9. Farooq (Sri Lanka) was the main contact with the Libyans through Dr. Niazi. He brought the suppliers in contact with them and gave copies of all the drawings etc. which Dr. A.Q. Khan had kept in Dubai for discussions with the suppliers. These drawings also included those of the device, as Dr. Khan was ordering components from England, Switzerland etc. His own old notes were also kept there for necessary use. Farooq and/or Tahir had access to the flat as they were maintaining it and they must have given copies of all the papers to the Libyans. The Libyans gave Farooq/Tahir $5 million, some of which they gave to Dr. Niazi, some they transferred to India, Singapore etc. and some was put in the account of the fictitious Haider Zaman. Some money from this account was used by Tahir for payments to suppliers etc. and some was again donated for social, welfare and educational projects in Pakistan run by Dr. Khan.

10. The Iranian affair was closed long ago, but the Libyans were trying to acquire components and equipment from abroad via Dubai either through Tahir or directly from other suppliers in Europe.

11. Whatever assistance was given was done in order to maintain friendly relations between the concerned country and us. It was never seriously believed this would lead to anything as they were scientifically and technologically backward countries unable even to establish a pilot plant of this nature or produce nuclear weapons.

12. It is most unfortunate that these things happened due to the peculiar nature of the circumstances and loose arrangements in those early days and because of the personal obligations of previous governments to these countries. There is a very strict command and control system now under the National Command Authority and nothing can be leaked out or taken away from any facilities any more. Fortunately, these happenings have not done irreparable damage to weapons control regimes and have awakened everyone all over the world to the danger of the vast underground network of western suppliers of this most sensitive and dangerous technology.

Fox News
Letter Written by Dr A Q Khan to His Wife

Darling,

If the government plays any mischief with me take a tough stand:
(1)You know we had cooperation with China for 15 years. We put up a centrifuge plant at Hanzhong (250km south-west of Xian). We sent 135 C-130 plane loads of machines, inverters, valves, flow meters, pressure gauges. Our teams stayed there for weeks to help and their teams stayed here for weeks at a time. Late minister Liu We, V. M. [vice minister] Li Chew, Vice Minister Jiang Shengjie used to visit us.

(2)The Chinese gave us drawings of the nuclear weapon, gave us kg50 enriched uranium, gave us 10 tons of UF6 (natural) and 5 tons of UF6 (3%). Chinese helped PAEC [Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, the rival organisation to the Khan Research Laboratories] in setting up UF6 plant, production reactor for plutonium and reprocessing plant.

(3) Probably with the blessings of BB [Benazir Bhutto] & Gen [Aslam] Beg , Gen Imtiaz asked Hashmi [a former colleague of AQK] & me to give a set of drawings and some components to the Iranians. We had no direct contact and we never sent anybody or received anybody. The names and addresses of suppliers were also given to the Iranians. [Note in margin] Gave these things through Dr Niazi [Bhutto family dentist and confidant, now dead]. Must have got money for it ($1 million).

(4) Gen Jehangir Karamat [still alive, chief of army staff 1996-8, sent by Musharraf as ambassador to U.S. 2004-2006] took $3 million through me from the N Koreans and asked me to give them some drawings and machines.

(5) We sold [conventional] weapons to Libya, Sudan and Malaysia. And sent [conventional] weapons to Bosnia. [Khan’s KRL plant also made anti-tank missiles and shoulder-fired anti-aircraft missiles.]

(6) There is proof of all this stashed somewhere safely which will be given to public and press.

Use Major Islam or Hashmi [former colleagues of A Q Khan] and get S M Zafar [lawyer of AQK] to take up these matters in court/public. Get in touch with Simon Henderson and give him all the details. Ask Henk [Slebos, part of Khan’s purchasing network in The Netherlands] to get a guy from Telegraaf and give him all the details. Tell them the bastards first used us and now playing dirty games with us.

Love you

Khantje [diminutive name used between Khan and his wife]
Get out quickly to Dubai with Tanya [grand-daughter who lives with them] for a while or leave Tanya with Ayesha [daughter who lives in Islamabad]. I believe they want to make me a scapegoat as Mr Wajid Shamsul Hassan (former HC [high commissioner] in London) had warned in an article (with Major Islam). They might try to get rid of me to cover up all the things (dirty) they got done by me in connection with Iran, Libya & N. Korea. This is just to forewarn you.
Dr A Q Khan
NI & Bar, HI

Fox News

General Jehangir Karamat’s Letter to Fox News

Dear Ms Browne,

Thank you for reaching out to me prior to your planned broadcast and website postings. I am sure that a prestigious news organization like the Fox News will satisfy themselves about the authenticity and credibility of sources, documents, letters, statements etc because many of these have been in circulation and have been changing hands for years even as new fabricated ones keep cropping up. There are obviously many motivations for this activity. None of the information that you have asked me to comment upon is new. It has all been published before in different formats and pertains to events almost fifteen years ago. The entire proliferation episode actually spans a much longer period with more than one country involved. The total episode was the subject of an exhaustive and thorough investigation before it was formally closed. The allegations and information surfacing now have to be seen in this overall context as regards their timing and motivation as well as coincidence with other currently ongoing situations----these aspects will inevitably be discussed. Having retired in 1998 I was not privy to the details of the proliferation episode and the final investigation report. I can only comment on the specific issues that concern me and are supposedly from ‘statements made during investigations’. The allegation that I accepted any payment from Dr Khan for letting him pass on material to North Korea is preposterous, false and a malicious fabrication. In fact if such an allegation has been made then it fully implicates Dr Khan in ‘one on one’ dealing with another country including receiving money. Where that money subsequently went (if it was paid) is speculation and no one persons word can be accepted especially if that person was actually involved in such matters over a prolonged period. I doubt that Dr Khan would put himself in such a position because it in no way clears him—it actually implicates him. I categorically deny this baseless allegation because I never asked Dr Khan to pass on to the North Koreans ‘drawings and machines’ related to uranium enrichment. As CGS I was not in a position to demand anything from Dr A Q Khan. He was neither my subordinate nor could I delay or sanction payments to him or anyone else. I had nothing to do with the payments or the program. I am also sure that a person of Dr Khan’s standing would not get into the business of carting around money in brief cases like a bagman. If any illegal demands were being made then those could, and should have been reported to my superiors because the CGS was never in the loop on matters pertaining to the nuclear program. I am not aware of the dealings between ‘Kang’ and Dr Khan or anyone else. I have no knowledge of the details of the North Korean program that are given in your note. I do know that as COAS I did not personally control any enrichment program and that GHQ never made payments of any sort to anyone. All contact was through designated staff and GHQ had nothing to do with contractual payments. There were never any ‘secret funds’. All contracts were between governments with laid down channels for payment—these could not be violated or circumvented. No contract with North Korea was signed during my tenure as COAS. Any material given or received outside the ongoing contracts by the person in charge of those materials was illegal. There was no reason for anyone to make any payment to me at Army House or anywhere else—no such payments were ever made because no transfer of material was ever authorized by me. The comments about the status of the North Korean program and the details given are something that I do not know about and therefore cannot comment upon. All this has been written about before and if you so desire I can try and locate that article and forward it to you. This probably pertains to a much later period 1999-2003 possibly so the question of anyone asking me for permission to transfer material does not arise. This never happened. I am not sure who is being indicated when it is said that ‘since they were working in the plant with P-2 machines’ but if it implies North Koreans then their presence was completely illegal and unauthorized. I would seriously question such an assertion. Finally let me say that as a rule I do not get into correspondence or discussion over such issues because no country would want its responsible people to publicly debate sensitive matters. I have given you my views frankly and I hope you will use this material judiciously.

With best wishes and regards

Jehangir Karamat

Compiled by PRASUN SENGUPTA

Tuesday, May 31, 2011

SYED SHAHZAD SALEEM - Tortured and Killed by ISI, Pakistan



ANYONE WILLING TO PAY TO SYED SALEEM'S TRUST FUND CAN DO SO BY CLICKING HERE:

I had in many instances had e-mail interactions with Syed Saleem and he was always gracious with his inputs - a man with deep knowledge and far greater direct contacts with Taliban and Al-Qaeda than ISI could have liked. And in the end he did not pay heed to ISI warnings - he was a fearless journalist - and is the norm in Pakistan - you simply get bumped off !



Before I go to his last published article, I wish to say a few words about his book that he got published just days before he was killed. INSIDE AL QAEDA & TALIBAN - BEYOND BIN LADEN & 9/11. Saleem made very interesting assertions on 26/11 Mumbai attacks. He said 26/11 was scripted by ISI, approved by AL-QAEDA commanders and executed by Lashkar e Taiba (LeT). From Al-Qaeda the main player was Ilyas Kashmiri and from LeT Haroon Ashik.

Guess what's the common link between Haroon Ashik and Ilyas Kashmiri? They were both from Pakistan Army!!Pakistan Army has been embedding terror outfits with its own men, especially in the operations and planning department so that there is close co-ordination with what Pakistan Army & ISI demands and its seamless execution by these terror outfits !

The book and Saleem's last article reproduced below clearly incensed Pakistan Army and its terror outfit (oops sorry, its intelligence wing) -the ISI!!!

This is his last published article in Asia Times Online (Hoping the part 2 is with the journal): Here is the article : Al-Qaeda had warned of Pakistan strike

ISLAMABAD - Al-Qaeda carried out the brazen attack on PNS Mehran naval air station in Karachi on May 22 after talks failed between the navy and al-Qaeda over the release of naval officials arrested on suspicion of al-Qaeda links, an Asia Times Online investigation reveals.

Pakistani security forces battled for 15 hours to clear the naval base after it had been stormed by a handful of well-armed militants.

At least 10 people were killed and two United States-made P3-C

Orion surveillance and anti-submarine aircraft worth US$36 million each were destroyed before some of the attackers escaped through a cordon of thousands of armed forces.

An official statement placed the number of militants at six, with four killed and two escaping. Unofficial sources, though, claim there were 10 militants with six getting free. Asia Times Online contacts confirm that the attackers were from Ilyas Kashmiri's 313 Brigade, the operational arm of al-Qaeda.

Three attacks on navy buses in which at least nine people were killed last month were warning shots for navy officials to accept al-Qaeda's demands over the detained suspects.

The May 2 killing in Pakistan of Osama bin Laden spurred al-Qaeda groups into developing a consensus for the attack in Karachi, in part as revenge for the death of their leader and also to deal a blow to Pakistan's surveillance capacity against the Indian navy.

The deeper underlying motive, though, was a reaction to massive internal crackdowns on al-Qaeda affiliates within the navy.

Volcano of militancy

Several weeks ago, naval intelligence traced an al-Qaeda cell operating inside several navy bases in Karachi, the country's largest city and key port.

"Islamic sentiments are common in the armed forces," a senior navy official told Asia Times Online on the condition of anonymity as he is not authorized to speak to the media.

"We never felt threatened by that. All armed forces around the world, whether American, British or Indian, take some inspiration from religion to motivate their cadre against the enemy. Pakistan came into existence on the two-nation theory that Hindus and Muslims are two separate nations and therefore no one can separate Islam and Islamic sentiment from the armed forces of Pakistan," the official said.

"Nonetheless, we observed an uneasy grouping on different naval bases in Karachi. While nobody can obstruct armed forces personnel for rendering religious rituals or studying Islam, the grouping [we observed] was against the discipline of the armed forces. That was the beginning of an intelligence operation in the navy to check for unscrupulous activities."

The official explained the grouping was against the leadership of the armed forces and opposed to its nexus with the United States against Islamic militancy. When some messages were intercepted hinting at attacks on visiting American officials, intelligence had good reason to take action and after careful evaluation at least 10 people - mostly from the lower cadre - were arrested in a series of operations.

"That was the beginning of huge trouble," the official said.

Those arrested were held in a naval intelligence office behind the chief minister's residence in Karachi, but before proper interrogation could begin, the in-charge of the investigation received direct threats from militants who made it clear they knew where the men were being detained.

The detainees were promptly moved to a safer location, but the threats continued. Officials involved in the case believe the militants feared interrogation would lead to the arrest of more of their loyalists in the navy. The militants therefore made it clear that if those detained were not released, naval installations would be attacked.

It was clear the militants were receiving good inside information as they always knew where the suspects were being detained, indicating sizeable al-Qaeda infiltration within the navy's ranks. A senior-level naval conference was called at which an intelligence official insisted that the matter be handled with great care, otherwise the consequences could be disastrous. Everybody present agreed, and it was decided to open a line of communication with al-Qaeda.

Abdul Samad Mansoori, a former student union activist and now part of 313 brigade, who originally hailed from Karachi but now lives in the North Waziristan tribal area was approached and talks begun. Al-Qaeda demanded the immediate release of the officials without further interrogation. This was rejected.

The detainees were allowed to speak to their families and were well treated, but officials were desperate to interrogate them fully to get an idea of the strength of al-Qaeda's penetration. The militants were told that once interrogation was completed, the men would be discharged from the service and freed.

Al-Qaeda rejected these terms and expressed its displeasure with the attacks on the navy buses in April.

These incidents pointed to more than the one al-Qaeda cell intelligence had tracked in the navy. The fear now was that if the problem was not addressed, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) supply lines could face a new threat. NATO convoys are routinely attacked once they begin the journey from Karachi to Afghanistan; now they could be at risk in Karachi port. Americans who often visit naval facilities in the city would also be in danger.

Therefore, another crackdown was conducted and more people were arrested. Those seized had different ethnic backgrounds. One naval commando came from South Waziristan's Mehsud tribe and was believed to have received direct instructions from Hakeemullah Mehsud, the chief of the Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (Pakistan Taliban). Others were from Punjab province and Karachi, the capital of Sindh province.

After Bin Laden was killed by American Navy Seals in Abbottabad, 60 kilometers north of Islamabad, militants decided the time was ripe for major action.

Within a week, insiders at PNS Mehran provided maps, pictures of different exit and entry routes taken in daylight and at night, the location of hangers and details of likely reaction from external security forces.

As a result, the militants were able to enter the heavily guarded facility where one group targeted the aircraft, a second group took on the first strike force and a third finally escaped with the others providing covering fire. Those who stayed behind were killed.

Thursday, May 5, 2011

OSAMA BIN LADEN KILLED - SO WHAT? NOTHING CHANGES

Omar Patek gave the window the Americans were looking for to nab Osama bin Laden (OBL). The US had zeroed in the house OBL lived by August of 2010 but going in to raid with Pakistanis posed a serious challenge – every raid has been tipped off by ISI as OBL is a strategic asset of ISI. OBL brought in billions in aid to Pakistan.

ISI controls Al-Qaeda and much of Sunni terrorist groups around the world. One can look at ISI as terror inc but more pragmatic view would be “ISI – mercenaries on hire” and it is this unique feature that US – UK el al use to further their oil and other interests in Central Asia / Africa / Eastern Europe and even India. The cohesiveness of US – UK in using ISI to use its foot soldiers (mercenaries to them, to the rest of us – terrorists) in various terror groups is a game beyond the grasp of many of our top foreign policy makers.

It has to be understood that OBL was nothing but a worthless crown – over the deadly brain of ISI. He was an icon who brought in foot soldiers and money to the cause. OBL was not a mastermind of either 9/11 or Madrid bombings or Bali bombings or 26/11. And because OBL was a CIA asset during Soviet occupation of the Afghanistan, the poor bloke did not stand a chance of being captured alive to be tried in courts – lest CIA dirty secrets come out.

Coming back to Omar Patek. The Americans needed him – the American President needed him even more. Now they had solid (not rock solid) intel, enough for an intervention. To go into Pakistan to pick up OBL without informing Pakistan Army was fraught with dangers. Even the best of radar evading electronic jamming machines may show up blips and Pakistan Army is not a rag tag bunch who will react like bumbling idiots. The Americans had to go into Abbottabad where OBL lived but had to go in without arousing Pakistan suspicion that they are after OBL.

Hence US intel gave information about Omar Patek – who lived in Abbotabad and Pakistan ISI picked him up in January of 2011. The game began. The real intention to nab OBL was kept out. Pakistan was dulled into believing that the US is after Omar Patek and his team. The assault on May 1st to OBL was on to pick up OBL – the Pakistanis thought that US is there to pick up Omar Patek’s men. There is however a serious hole in this theory – why would US give up Omar Patek’s name to ISI and not give the “lesser names” for them to fly in. Hence either Pakistan knew there was a high Al-Qaeda target or it was completely kept out of the loop. This will require a whole new article.

Omar Patek is part of Abu Sayyaf group – a group that was trained by ISI.

The ISI hand in Bali bombings as well as 9/11 is unmistakable but US kept it out of public view for its own larger interests in Central Asia.

Little digress of dealing of ISI and various terror outfits :

A little history to see how they (ISI - Al Qaeda - Terror groups) worked in tandem..

But before that – a tale of two individuals – Ramzi Yousef and Khalid Sheikh Mohammad (both related to each other). Both are Pakistani citizen though Khalid was born in Kuwait to Pakistani Balochi parents, his first passport was from Pakistan. After 9/11 people tried to pass Khalid Sheikh as a Kuwaiti citizen.

Khalid & Ramzi were nurtured, sheltered and trained by ISI in its Peshawar camp and received training in Khowst camp. Khalid, a brilliant student, became deeply involved with ISI & Al Qaeda.

In 1993 Khalid and Ramzi planned the New York city World Trade Centre bombing which was successfully carried out by Ramzi in Feb 26th, 1993. After the bombing, he came back to Pakistan and met Khalid Sheikh and stayed in ISI safe houses.

While in Pakistan, both planned to assassinate Benazir Bhutto in collaboration with some ISI operatives. ISI masterminded the assassination attempt – which did not take place (Note – the constant Al Qaeda ISI hand in the assassination attempt on Benazir.)

After the failed attempt, Ramzi moved to Phillipines. By this time Ramzi became a coveted ISI asset.

Nur Misauri, a professor of University of Philippines formed Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF). After suffering reversals at the hand of Philippines Army, Nur fled to PAKISTAN. Nur was financially supported by the ISI and stayed in guest houses in Peshawar and Karachi. He helped MNLF recruit for Afghan Jihad. While Nur wanted autonomy, Salamat Hashmi wanted independence from Philippines and he too was actively supported by ISI – so much so that Salamat moved his organization (MILF) head quarters to LAHORE.

However, the most prominent face of Moro revolt is Aby Sayyaf group (ASG). It was originated in PAKISTAN when 400 Moro youths were inducted to Pakistan’s ISI managed camp.

At this time, 3 retired ISI officers were recruited by ISI and deputed to Mindanao under cover as religious teachers.

Simultaneously, Osama bin Laden (OBL) stationed his brother-in-law Md. Jamal Khalifa in Philippines. Al Qaeda and ISI came to a tacit understanding – to transplant Afghan jihad in South East Asia and create a distinct Islamic hub, as against the increasing Christian influence.

( SEE THE CONNECTION OF ISI, OBL, ABU SAYYAF GROUP MERGING)

The other common thread binding them were students emanating from the madrassas of Karachi, Peshawar, Binori, Bannu & Quetta.

Khalifa set the Philippine operation rolling by setting up several front offices, trading units and charities. He was in charge of Saudi charity – Islamic International Relief Organization. With this he set up the terror network in Philippines and funded Al Qaeda operations in Jordan, Indonesia and Malaysia.

Committed Al Qaeda operatives – Zubair, Abu Oman and Sadiq Oden (Kenyan bombing fame) joined him.

Later Pakistani trainers, former ISI operatives, trained MILF and Abu Sayyaf guerrillas, the Malayan Kampulan Mujahideen, Jemmah Islamiyah and Lashkar Jundullah volunteers.

Linkages of ISI and Al Qaeda are very deep and stretches to the core positions of Islamic terrorism in the entire South East Asia.

Here the ISI – Al Qaeda team carried out several terrorist activities:

1. Ramzi bombed a mall at Cebu city
2. Ramzi masterminded the bombing of Miss Universe paegent
3. Wali Khan Shah, the ISI trained operative, bombed Greenbelt theatre in Manila
4. Audacious plan to assassinate Pope John Paul II and Bill Clinton (then US President) in Manila by these core group was uncovered in time and a major disaster was averted.
5. Trial run for 9-11 was hatched in Manila by ISI – Al Qaeda operatives. It was codenamed Operation Oplan Bojinka

OPLAN BOJINKA: This was conceived by Osama bin Laden, Khalifa, Ramzi,Khalid Sheikh and a faction of ISI. The grand plan was to sabotage 11 US flights over Pacific and they recruited Abu Sayyaf jehadists to carry out the plan.

An ISI trained Pakistani – Tareq Kaved Rana – resident of Paranque, Philippines, played an important role. He housed the conspirators at his place which he used to fabricate bombs.

Jamal, Ramzi & Khalid Sheikh guided the Manila cell of Al Qaeda. Another Pakistani terrorist, Wali Khan Shah (Greenway belt bomber) was entrusted by ISI to open terrorist cells in Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and Thailand. Another Pakistani born in Kuwait, Abdul Hakim Ali was trained by ISI in bomb making in Pehsawar. A product of Binori mosque and aligned to Harkat ul Ansar and trained by ISI – he joined the Philippines Al Qaeda cell.

On December 11, Ramzi boarded Philippines Airline 434 on a Manila – Cebu – Tokyo route. He assembled a bomb and planted it under his seat and deplaned at Cebu. The bomb exploded on the 2nd leg and killed one passenger – the plane had to make emergency landing at Okinawa, Japan.

The dry run for Oplan Bojinka was successful.

However, the full plan could not be carried out, as the apartment that the conspirators were living in, mysteriously caught fire. They abandoned the plans after “incriminating evidence” was collected by federal agencies in Philippines. Ramzi promptly fled to Pakistan where he was housed by ISI in their safe houses.

Filipino intelligence reported that Wali Khan Shah had visited Pakistan embassy in Manila twice to meet the ISI station in charge.

On September 5th 1996, Ramzi, Murad and Shah were convicted of Oplan Bojinka.

Under intense pressure Ramzi was arrested from a guest house in Islamabad.

Under intense pressure, Khalid Sheikh was arrested after 9/11 – described as the mastermind of 9/11.


Back to OBL – Why he was staying in a compound that was compromised once is not known and that too for 5 years. Medical treatment meant he be close to cantonment area where he cannot be “snatched” by hostile powers. The house in question is supposed to be owned by 100% ISI funded Hizbul Mujahiddeen group - as is being claimed by a Canadian newspaper and even as an ISI safe house by Gulf News. Of course even a naive person will be aware that OBL living in Abbotabad was under the protection of ISI - so what ?

That he was staying in that area was alerted by RAW to CIA in 2008 when RAW operatives sighted Ayman Al Zawahari moving from Islamabad to Abbottabad. TIMES OF INDIA: It now turns out that Indian agencies had twice warned their US counterparts about the presence of al-Qaida chief Osama bin Laden in an urbanized and heavily populated area not very far from Islamabad “ once in mid-2007 and again in early 2008 when they specifically mentioned his likely presence in a cantonment area. On both occasions, the Americans either did not take the Indian intelligence seriously or perhaps were too busy working on their own inputs about Osamas whereabouts.

The first time Indian security agencies gave this information to the US authorities was in mid-2007, soon after a Taliban meeting in Peshawar which was attended by Osamas No.2 Ayman al-Zawahiri. According to the information gathered by Indian intelligence operatives, this meeting was also attended by top leaders of Haqqani network and at least two ISI officials.

Was it really the courier whose tracking blew the whistle ultimately? Or was it a “rogue” ISI senior member who blew the lid off to the Americans to humiliate his counterparts due to a serious grouse? Or was it ex-President Pervez Musharraf who struck a deal with US/UK so that he is not extradited to Pakistan to face murder charges against the killing of Bhutto? Some one sold out. Americans used intel to target OBL. Fed ISI dis-information and pulled off the biggest and most startling covert ops in recent memory.

Is Paksitan going to face heat? From public yes – and if public sentiment turns seriously negative, then President Obama’s rating that saw 11 point climb post the spl ops that killed OBL will plummet. He has to work hard to keep Pakistan happy to feed US troops in Afghanistan. And to keep Pakistan happy to keep its Central Asia / Arabian / African game going – like it is doing in Bahrain.


See Advt above that appeared in a Pakistani newspaper seeking "volunteers" to quell uprising in Bahrain.

2011 BAHRAIN: A Shia majority country has a Sunni monarchy. US 5th Fleet is based there. To quell the popular shia uprising, US took help from Pakistan to quell the uprising bysending ex-Pakistani soldiers & mercenaries (read terrorists) via Saudi Arabia to kill and control Shia protestors. All under US patronage !!

As long as great game is on, why only in Afghan soil, the CIA & ISI are as much buddies as ISI & Al Qaeda are.

1970 JORDAN : During “Black September” in 1970, when Palestinians nearly brought down King Hussein’s monarchy in Jordan, it was a unit of the Pakistani army led by none other than the late Gen. Zia-ul Haq that brutally put down the revolt and preserved Hashemite rule. All under US patronage!

From 1970 to 2011 - the game is on and will continue to the detriment of India's security environment - as long as we have weak pliable PMs at helm.

And ISI has usurped the top decision making units of all these terrorist outfits with its men. Ilyas Kashmiri is a Pakistan SSG Commando who is now the military wing head of Brigade 313 of Al Qaeda. Whether OBL lives or dies, ISI is firmly in control of all major Sunni terrorist organizations of the globe. And Kashmiri is recruiting ex- Pak Army soldiers into Al-Qaeda and other terrorist organizations. Operationally there is no difference between Taliban, Al Qaeda, Hizbul Mujahideen, HUJI et al. In a few years - the lines between Pakistan Army and Al-Qaeda will blur - if not already !!

Read how much US did to Pakistan post 9/11 - read this: Before next 9/11 pay senators off (which incl ex - Indian ambassador Timothy Roemer)

BOTTOM LINE: THERE WILL BE LOTS OF BLUSTER IN STATEMENTS FOR PUBLIC AT LARGE. BEHIND CLOSED DOORS THEY (CIA, ISI ET AL) WILL BE SHAKING HANDS FOR THEIR NEXT OPS.

Monday, January 24, 2011

ILLEGAL MONEY STASHED IN SWITZERLAND AND OTHER TAX HAVENS

It's funny if you look at visa regulations of countries that are deemed tax havens - Indians do not require visa to enter in most of them. And why not?

JAN 21st, 2011: INDIA TODAY ARTICLE - THE GREAT INDIAN ROBBERY

MAR 18TH, 2009: MY BLOG - INDIA has $1.4 Trillion of Illegal money stashed in Swiss Banks - Time to bring it home !

APR 28TH, 2009: MY BLOG - KGB PAID MONEY TO SONIA, RAHUL, RAJIV GANDHI & ALSO TO SONIA'S MOTHER IN ITALY !

I should not single out Congress Party as the only corrupt party, rest are too - but Congress ruled India most - hence its been singled out. Between Koda, Kalmadi, Radiaa and others - do we care anymore ?